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PRECEDE-PROCEED

PRECEDE-PROCEED is a planning model first developed in the 1970s for health education and promotion programs based on the Socio-ecological Model. The model has three basic premises: (1) practitioners should start with the desired health objectives and work backwards to determine what needs to be done to bring about that result; (2) the purpose of a health intervention is to improve the quality of life for individuals and their community; and (3) planning and implementing a community intervention calls for collaboration between health professionals as well as community members.

PRECEDE stands for Predisposing, Reinforcing, Enabling Constructs in Educational/ Environmental Diagnosis and Evaluation.  It is the first part of the model and involves four phases: (1) social assessment; (2) epidemiological assessment (which includes behavioral and environmental assessment); (3) educational and ecological assessment; and (4) administrative and policy assessment. These phases identify and prioritize the health issues in a community, determine the factors that affect health problems, and examine available and needed resources.  Predisposing factors (such as cultural beliefs) motivate or provide reason for a behavior, while enabling factors (such as available health services) allow people to act on their predispositions.  Reinforcing factors encourage people to continuing practicing good health behavior by providing incentives (such as symptom relief). 

PROCEED stands for Policy, Regulatory, and Organizational Constructs in Educational and Environmental Development. It consists of four phases involving the application and evaluation of strategies used: (6) implementation; (7) process evaluation; (8) impact evaluation; and (9) outcome evaluation.  Process evaluation assesses whether or not the program is being carried out according to plan.  Impact evaluation examines if and how changes in predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors influence behavioral and environmental changes. Outcome evaluations assess how the intervention has affected the health status and behavior of a community.